In this paper, a UART design is proposed. The design has an auto-tuning baud rate generator. For achieving the speed matching of the processor and UART interface, it takes asynchronous FIFOs as buffers to realize data exchange between UART and external devices. The whole design is functionally verified using ModelSim SE 6.0, and synthesized and optimized by Synplicity's Synplify Premier 9.6.2. Exar's XR21V141x is an enhanced universal asynchronous receiver and transmitter (UART) with a USB interface. The USB interface is fully compliant to full speed USB 2.0 specification that supports 12 Mbps USB data transfer rate. The USB interface also supports.
|Category||Communication => UARTs|
|Description||U-uart - Usb Ultrabaud Data Transfer ic With Rs232 /rs422 And Cpu I/f Options|
|Company||Future Technology Devices Intl Ltd.|
|Datasheet||Download FT8U232AM datasheet|
|U-UART - USB UltraBaud Data Transfer IC with / RS422 and CPU I/F Options FEATURES|
Single Chip Multi-Function Data Transfer Solution RS232 link from 300 baud to 920K baud RS422/RS485 Link to 2000K baud 384 byte receive buffer / 128 byte transmit buffer for high data throughput Full hardware assisted or X-On/X-Off handshaking Support for Event Characters and Line Break condition Auto Transmit Buffer control for RS485 Compact 32 pin 7mm ) MQFP package Integrated - 48MHz Clock Multiplier aids FCC and CE compliance Integrated 3.3v Regulator No External Regulator Required 4.4v. 5.25v Single Supply Operation UHCI / OHCI Compliant USB 1.1 Specification Compliant USB VID, PID, Serial Number and Product Description Strings in external E2PROM. Virtual COM Port Drivers for Windows 98 and Windows 98 SE Windows 2000 Windows Millennium Apple iMAC Linux Application Areas USB ISDN and ADSL ModemsÙ PDA Interface Cables USB Ù RS232 Converters / Cables USB / RS485 High Speed Industrial
USB Links USB Digital Cameras USB I/F for MP3 players Ultra-high performance Serial Port for legacy free PC system boards / Easy PC's
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The is a cost-effective single chip USB UART ( U-UART ) solution for transferring serial data over USB. With data transfer rates to 920k baud RS232 ) and 2,000 k baud ) , the FT8U232AM significantly raises the performance level above that above that of traditional ISA and PCI based UART solutions whilst offering true plug and play and easy interfacing through it's USB interface. Its flexible architecture allows this to be used in many different application areas - USB modems, Legacy RS232Ù USB Converter cables, USB interface cables for PDA's , Bar Code Scanners , RS422 data links
and instrumentation in fact almost any equipment that previously used a slow RS232 link for communication. Virtual COM port drivers are available for the FT8U232AM for Windows '98, Windows 98 SE and Windows 2000. Drivers for other operating systems are currently under development.
USBDP USB Transceiver USBDM Serial Interface Engine ( SIE ) USB Protocol Engine UART FIFO Controller UARTTXDEN USBEN TXLED# RXLED# Dual Port RX Buffer 384 Bytes EECS EESK EEDATA
EEPROM Interface XTOUT 6MHZ Oscillator XTIN x8 Clock Multiplier 12MHz 48MHz GND RESET# TEST
32 EESK EEDATA VCC RESET# TEST 3V3OUT USBDP USBDM 9 1
3.3V LDO Regulator The 3.3V LDO Regulator generates the 3.3 volt reference voltage for driving the USB transceiver cell output buffers. It requires an external decoupling capacitor to be attached to the 3V3OUT regulator output pin.
USB Transceiver The USB Transceiver Cell provides the USB 1.1 full-speed physical interface to the USB cable. The output drivers provide 3.3 volt level slew rate control signalling, whilst a differential receiver and two single ended receivers provide USB data in, SEO and USB Reset condition detection.
USB DPLL The USB DPLL cell locks on to the incoming NRZI USB data and provides separate recovered clock and data signals to the SIE block.
6MHz Oscillator The 6MHz Oscillator cell generates a 6MHz reference clock input to the X8 Clock multiplier from an external 6MHz crystal or ceramic resonator.
X8 Clock Multiplier The X8 Clock Multiplier takes the 6MHz input from the Oscillator cell and generates a 12MHz reference clock for the SIE, USB Protocol Engine and UART FIFO controller blocks. It also generates a 48MHz reference clock for the USB DPPL and the Baud Rate Generator blocks.
Serial Interface Engine ( SIE ) The Serial Interface Engine ( SIE ) block performs the Parallel to Serial and Serial to Parallel conversion of the USB data. In accordance to the USB 1.1 specification, it performs bit stuffing / un-stuffing and / CRC16 generation / checking on the USB data stream.
USB Protocol Engine The USB Protocol Engine manages the data stream from the device USB control endpoint. It handles the low level USB protocol ( Chapter 9 ) requests generated by the USB host controller and the commands for controlling the functional parameters of the UART.
Dual Port TX Buffer ( 128 bytes ) Data from the USB data out endpoint is stored in the Dual Port TX buffer and removed from the buffer to the UART transmit register under control of the UART FIFO controller.
|Some Part number from the same manufacture Future Technology Devices Intl Ltd.|
|FT8U245AM Usb Fifo - Fast Parallel Data Transfer ic|
|FT232R USB UART ICThe FT232R is the latest device to be added to FTDI’s range of USB UART interface Integrated Circuit Devices. The FT232R is a USB to serial UART interface with optional clock generator output,|
|FT245R USB FIFO ICThe FT245R is the latest device to be added to FTDI’s range of USB FIFO interface Integrated Circuit Devices. The FT245R is a USB to parallel FIFO interface, with the new FTDIChip-ID™ security|
|UM245R Usb-parallel FIFO Development Module Incorporating Ftdichip-id¢â Security Dongle|
|FT245BQ USB FIFO ( USB - Parallel ) I.C.|
|FT2232L Dual USB UART / FIFO I.C.|
|TTL-232R USB to TTL Serial Converter Cable|
|FT8U232 U-uart - USB Ultrabaud Data Transfer IC with Rs232 / Rs422 and CPU I/F Options|
|FT245BL USB FIFO ( USB - Parallel ) I.C.|
|EVAL232R Ft232rl USB to Rs232 Evaluation Module|
|FT4232H QUAD HIGH Speed USB TO Multipurpose UART|
|FT232BQ USB UART ( USB - Serial) I.C.|
|FT2232D Dual USB Uart/fifo I.C.|
|UM232R USB- Serial UART Development Module|
|UC232R ¡°chipi¡± Minimum Component Ft232rl USB to Rs232 Converter Cable|
|VDIP2 Vinculum Vnc1l Prototyping Module|
|FT2232H DUAL HIGH Speed USB TO Multipurpose UART|
|FT232RL Incorporating Clock Generator Output and Ftdichip-id Security Dongle|
|FT232BL USB UART ( USB - Serial) I.C.|
|FT2232C Dual USB UART / FIFO I.C.|
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If we remember the old computer parts like printer, mouse, the keyboard is associated with the help of connectors. The communication process between the computer and these parts could be done using the UART. Universal Serial Bus (USB) has changed all kinds of communication principles on computers. But, UART is still used in the above-declared applications. Approximately all types of microcontroller architectures have built-in UART hardware due to serial communication and use only two cables for communication. This article discusses what UART, How UART Works, the difference between serial and parallel communication, UART block diagram, UART communication, UART interfacing, Applications, Advantages, and Disadvantages.
The UART full form is “Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter”, and it is an inbuilt IC within a microcontroller but not like a communication protocol (I2C & SPI). The main function of UART is to serial data communication. In UART, the communication between two devices can be done in two ways namely serial data communication and parallel data communication.
In serial data communication, the data can be transferred through a single cable or line in a bit- by- bit form and it requires just two cables. Serial data communication is not expensive when we compared with parallel communication. It requires very less circuitry as well as wires. Thus, this communication is very useful in compound circuits compared with parallel communication.
In parallel data communication, the data can be transferred through multiple cables at once. Parallel data communication is expensive as well as very fast, as its requires additional hardware and cables. The best examples for this communication are old printers, PCI, RAM, etc.
The UART block diagram consists of two components namely the transmitter & receiver that is shown below. The transmitter section includes three blocks namely transmit hold register, shift register and also control logic. Likewise, the receiver section includes a receive hold register, shift register, and control logic. These two sections are commonly provided by a baud-rate-generator. This generator is used for generating the speed when the transmitter section & receiver section has to transmit or receive the data.
The hold register in the transmitter comprises the data-byte to be transmitted. The shift registers in transmitter and receiver move the bits to the right or left till a byte of data is transmitted or received. A read (or) write control logic is used for telling when to read or write.
The baud-rate-generator among the transmitter and the receiver generates the speed that ranges from 110 bps to 230400 bps. Typically, the baud rates of microcontrollers are 9600 to 115200.
In this communication, there are two types of UARTs available namely transmitting UART and receiving UART, and the communication between these two can be done directly by each other. For this, simply two cables are required to communicate between two UARTs. The flow of data will be from both the transmitting (Tx) & receiving (Rx) pins of the UARTs. In UART, the data transmission from Tx UART to Rx UART can be done asynchronously (there is no CLK signal for synchronizing the o/p bits).
The data transmission of a UART can be done by using a data bus in the form of parallel by other devices like a microcontroller, memory, CPU, etc. After receiving the parallel data from the bus, it forms a data packet by adding three bits like start, stop and parity. It reads the data packet bit by bit and converts the received data into the parallel form to eliminate the three bits of the data packet. In conclusion, the data packet received by the UART transfers in parallel toward the data bus at the receiving end.
Start-bit is also known as a synchronization bit that is placed before the actual data. Generally, an inactive data transmission line is controlled at a high-voltage level. In order to begin the data transmission, the UART transmission drags the data-line from a high voltage level (1) to a low voltage level (0). The obtaining UART notices this transform from the high level to low level over the data line as well as starts understanding the real data. Generally, there is just a single start bit.
The Stop Bit is placed at the ending of the data packet. Usually, this bit is 2-bits lengthy but frequently on bit only utilized. In order to stop the broadcast, the UART keeps the data-line on high voltage.
Parity bit lets the receiver to ensure whether the collected data is right or not. It is a low-level fault checking system & parity bit is available in two ranges such as Even Parity as well as Odd Parity. Actually, this bit is not widely used so it is not compulsory.
Data Bits or Data Frame
The data bits include the real data being conveyed from the sender to receiver. The data frame length could be between 5 & 8. If the parity bit is not used when the data frame length could be 9-bit long. Generally, the LSB of the data to be transmitted first then it is very useful for transmitting.
The following figure shows UART interfacing with a microcontroller. The UART communication can be done using three signals like TXD, RXD, and GND.
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By using this, we can exhibit a text in personal computer from 8051 microcontroller board as well as the UART module. In 8051 board, there are two serial interfaces such as UART0 and UART1. Here, UART0 interfacing is used. The Tx pin transmits the information to PC & Rx pin receives the information from PC. Baud rate can be used to denote the speeds of both the microcontroller and PC. The data transmission and reception can be done properly when the baud rates of both microcontroller & PC are similar.
UART is normally used in microcontrollers for exact requirements, and these are also available in various communication devices like wireless communication, GPS units, Bluetooth module, and many other applications.
The communication standards like RS422 & TIA are used in UART except for RS232. Usually, a UART is a separate IC used in UART serial communications.
The pros and cons of UART include the following
Thus, this is all about an overview of Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) is one of the fundamental interfaces which gives a simple, cost-effective & consistent communication among microcontroller as well as PC. Here is a question for you what are UART pins?